[MQP] Maintenance and Expansion Evaluation of the Panama Canal

Sponsor: Panama Canal Authority 15832737596_96ed813010_b
Student Team: Denzel Amevor
Sarah Antolick
Alex Manternach
Kevin Lynch
Nicolette Yee
Abstract: The Panama Canal Authority (ACP) is currently undergoing maintenance and expansion projects on the Panama Canal. This project includes progress analyses and design elements related to the Borinquen Dam 1E and the Pacific canal entrance. The goals of this project is to achieve four design oriented Objectives including: 1) recommendations for the improvement of the dredging operations at the Pacific canal entrance; 2) the design process for producing as-built grout profile drawings along Dam 1E; 3) the compaction and testing specifications for the clay core of Dam 1E and; 4) a progress and cost analysis including recommendations for Dam 1E. Results from this paper provided the ACP with information and recommendations to improve the functionality of several operations.
Links: Final Report

Executive Summary

Pacific Entrance Maintenance Dredging

The Autoridad del Canal de Panama (ACP) is currently performing maintenance on the Pacific entrance of the Canal. This entails an extensive dredging project where the ACP plans to reduce the slopes on the Canal banks and deepen the center by removing loose sediment. We have been tasked with determining the progress being made by the Canal Authority sub-contractor, Dredging International, and design more efficient ways for the project to be done. We will discuss and analyze the work done by Dredging International and develop a comprehensive procedure to improve the current dredging operation as well as future maintenance plans.

For the Panama Canal, the maintenance dredging taking place will be for navigation. High mobility is required to function properly in areas where high traffic and currents are present. The Panama Canal maintenance-dredging project will use a trailing suction hopper dredger. Also known as a ‘trailer’, this dredger has the ability to load a hopper contained within its structure by means of pumps while the vessel is moving ahead (Page 157, Bray, 1978). The ability to move while dredging is helpful in the Canal as the vessel must navigate one of the busiest waterways in the world. In order to unload the vessel will either have a pump discharge or a bottom-discharge to unload sediment below its location. This ability to bottom-discharge is especially useful in the maintenance dredging because the sediment is transported out to sea where it is released.

The Panama Canal Authority has asked us to determine the progress of the maintenance dredging project. The dredging operation began on November 5th, 2014 end will end on January 7th, 2015. The goal of our project is to aid the Panama Canal Authority in the completion of their maintenance dredging project. To accomplish this goal our team will complete the following two objectives: Determine if the dredging project is on schedule, and research and design possible improvements to operations

Based on the 1,234,340 m3 the contract requires to be dredged, we were able to determine that Dredging International must dredge at least 32,908m3 per day in order to finish the job by the January 8th, 2015 completion date. The sub-contractor consistently manages to dredge the above the required minimum amount, meaning they will most likely be able to complete the project on schedule. The maintenance dredging project cost is based on volume of sediment dredged. Since the draghead will pick up slurry that includes water along with the sediment, an accurate way to determine the volume of the sediment was needed. To ensure the volume measurements are accurate, the Breughel uses multiple methods in its calculations including, on board equipment to measure density of slurry and volume it collects, estimates from surveys of how much sediment must be removed, and onboard equipment to measure discharge volume and density. These three methods are compared and fall within 10% of each other. The Breughel does have many tools to lessen the effects of traffic on the dredging operation. The most helpful is offered by the Canal Authority, which gives a schedule of all vessel activity through the Canal for the current day and one day in advance. Additionally, there are vessel tracking systems that will show the location of every vessel in and around the canal. The vessels name, dimensions, and velocity and bearing all are available.

Dredging International must allow a minimum clearance of 122m in the navigation channel during “oneway” periods. This means that the prism lines outside of the navigation channel will still be available to work in. However the navigation channel will not be accessible for work during these times. This prevents sectors II and III from being dredged during one-way traffic hours. During times when “two-way” traffic is passing through the Pacific Entrance Channel, no work can be done, severely limiting production hours for Dredging International. Areas that are not easily accessible are dredged when there is no traffic on the canal, giving Dredging International the necessary time to maneuver through the access channel. As the project wore on and the canal widened, the dredge was able to work on the edges of the channel while traffic was passing through.

Daily traffic schedules are only posted one day in advanced, giving the contractor a very limited timeframe to plan their daily operations. Coordination from traffic control, the contractor, and the ACP dredging division is paramount for the timely completion of this project. There is always an ACP pilot aboard the dredge to make decisions on behalf of the ACP and to ensure that the dredge is not disrupting traffic.

Tide also plays a major role in the maintenance dredging operation. The water level in the entrance can fluctuate by about 5 meters due to the tide. This means that some shallower areas of the channel are inaccessible during certain points of the day, forcing the contractor to work on other areas. The tide also effects how the contractor dumps material at the disposal site. In order to ensure that the sediment is evenly distributed throughout the site, tide and currents must be considered. Strong currents could carry sediment into different parts of the dumping site or even out of the site completely.

Dredging International is only contracted to remove sedimentary materials. While the trailing suction hopper dredge excels at excavating sand and other loose materials, it struggles to handle rock. As the contractor digs deeper, they face harder materials. In some cases in order to reach the design depth it may be necessary to excavate some rocks and larger aggregates. Because the dredger was not designed to handle these materials the process is slow and it production.

Delays also significantly impacted production values. Pacific entrance Channel must remain open and operational while the project is underway. This means that the dredging must not at all interfere with the daily operations of the channel. Our team was able track not only the delays to the project, but the cause of the delays as well. Most of the delays are under 20 minutes, which in a 24 hour operation is only a minor setback. However, there are some outliers. On November 15th operation was halted for about 15 hours due to maintenance on the engines. On the 21st and 22nd more minor maintenance was done, thus delaying production. Overall about 57 hours in production time is lost due to delays. While a vast majority of the delays are due to traffic issues some are also caused by maintenance, pilot changes, and collisions.

The Breughel dredger is equipped with an overflow valve that can be used to increase the slurry density. Since the sediment has a higher density then water, as the hopper becomes full with slurry the top levels that have low concentrations of sediment are released back into the channel. This technique is used to increase the productivity of a dredger as the hopper will hold slurry with a higher content of sediment, the volume of which is used to measure productivity. With the maintenance dredging of the Canal however the use of an overflow is nearly impossible. Since the sediment being collected by the trailing suction draghead is of a relatively low density, it takes a long time to settle. If the overflow were to be used, the density of the slurry exiting the hopper would have a water content that is not much higher than the original slurry. Additionally, environmental concerns of dumping slurry with higher sediment contents means the Breughel must first seek approval before using the overflow valve. These two problems compound each other and make the use of an overflow valve impractical for the maintenance dredging project.

The second aspect of the operation is sailing. We combined the sailing from the site to discharge are and sailing from discharge area back to the site as one component due to their similarities. Though the options in this process are very limited, it was still necessary to explore any way for the sailing aspect to become more efficient. To improve the time it takes to move from work site to discharge area, we focused on ways to improve sailing speed and minimizing sailing distance.

The sailing speed discussed is not dependent on the distance as it is the velocity of the vessel and not the time it takes to travel. It is also dependent on many external factors including Canal restrictions, vessel traffic, and weather conditions. The sailing speed of the Breughel is a fixed speed and any change in efficiency from going faster would be negligible. The current distance between the dredging site and discharge area is a fixed length. For the current maintenance project, discharging at sea is the most feasible option. The only way to reduce the sailing distance would be to have a different method of discharge.

Another area that has potential for improvement is the discharge of sediment from the dredger. The operation currently uses a dump site in the Pacific Ocean, meaning the vessel must sail to and from this site to discharge sediment. To improve sailing time between these two sites, alternative means of discharge must be considered. In addition to its bottom door, the Breughel also has the ability to pump its sediment to other barges for transportation or use a pump to shoot the slurry back to land for reclamation.

An additional way to transport sediment from the project site is by use of a barge. By pumping slurry into the barge instead of the dredger’s hopper, there will be no waste of time in sailing to the discharge area. If the Breughel used a barge, they would save over 45 minutes that is required to sail and unload the hopper.

When considering the implications of using a barge, the benefits begin to diminish. Since the Breughel must dredge while navigating a busy channel, having an additional vessel would only complicate matters. The cost of having a barge would also offset any savings from the increase dredging production. Finally, given the size of the project and the time allotted for completion, there is no pressure to increase dredging production, especially at the cost of adding vessels and their crew to the project.

Development of As-Built Stitch Grouting Drawings for Borinquen Dam 1E

The stability of the foundation of Borinquen Dam 1E is extremely important since the dam obliquely crosses the Pedro Miguel Fault, which is one of the largest faults in the world. For this reason, it is important to ensure that the Dam 1E does not fail. There are several reasons why dams may fail. These include: 1. Poor Site Selection 2. Poor Design/Construction 3. Seismic Activity 4. Impact/Collision.

Boring logs along the entire length of the dam indicate the presence of crushed rock, sheared and altered as a result of rock movement. Therefore, the design of the Dam 1E posed challenges including (United States Society on Dams, 2011): 1. Variable foundation conditions with occasional weak features; 2. A high seismic hazard, including possible surface fault rupture across the dam foundations; and 3. Potential for grounding of Post-Panamax-size ships against the inboard face of the dams. For these reasons, it is important that the dam foundation has sufficient strength for static and seismic stability (URS Holdings, Inc., 2009). Seismic dam deformation must not compromise the ability of the structure to retain the Gatun Lake, lead to overtopping, or require emergency response that impedes the operation of the canal.

In order to fulfill the criteria previous stated for the foundation of Dam 1E, several steps need to be taken. Firstly, the area needs to be excavated until sound rock is found and that surface needs to be treated. Next, the area needs to be properly dewatered, and cutoff walls installed in the necessary areas. Lastly, grout curtains need to be created to control seepage (URS Holdings, Inc., 2009).

Seepage will be controlled using foundation grouting throughout the entire dam. Cement slurry or chemicals are forced into grout holes under pressure into the rock defects including joints, fractures, bedding partings and faults. Grouting aims to accomplish the following (Fell, 2005): 1. Reduce leakage through the dam foundation; 2. Reduce seepage erosion potential; 3. Reduce uplift pressures; and 4. Reduce settlements in the foundation.

Foundation grouting takes two forms: Curtain Grouting and Consolidation. Curtain grouting, specifically permeation grouting is used in the Borinquen Dam 1E. Permeation grouting functions by creating a narrow barrier or curtain in highly permeable rock. This grouting method usually consists of a single row of grout holes which are drilled and grouted to the base of the permeable rock. In areas where shear zones are present in the foundation, additional measures need to be taken to ensure that the foundation meets the stability criteria set by the ACP. These efforts are referred to as stitch grouting. Stitch grouting uses angled fans of grout holes that are crisscrossed at various depths and locations.  The grout mixture used consists of Type III Portland cement, superplasticizer, bentonite and water.

The goal for this project was to design a simple set of instructions for producing As-Built drawings for the stitch grout holes drilled and grouted in the construction of the foundation for Dam 1E. To do this, four objectives were developed. These include:

  • Objective 1: Become well versed on the terminologies and calculations
  • Objective 2: Identify internal resources available
  • Objective 3: Become familiarized on the databases provided
  • Objective 4: Determine the layout of the final drawings

Several interviews and Document Analyses were conducted to gather information to successfully accomplish these objectives. During this internship, several facts have been discovered regarding grouting and the production of the As-Built drawings. These findings include:

  • 1. Grouting is performed in stages no longer than 6 meters to more effectively target fractures and other defects in the rock
  • 2. Mix 1 is the most common mix being used
  • 3. Results from Lugeon tests and grout take values in verification holes are used to prove the effectiveness of foundation grouting on the rock masses
  • 4. Remediation holes may also be drilled and grouted if verification testing shows that the initial production grouting was ineffective
  • 5. All drawings should be at a scale of 1:100 on a 22”x34” sheet to make the drawings readable at half size (11” x 17”)
  • 6. The Deere Classification is used to color code the As-Built drawings based on grout take
  • 7. The extensive grouting data from thousands of holes can be more easily interpreted when sorted by Row and then by Station
  • 8. Approach used to create As-Built drawings from an Excel database using an AutoCAD Visual Basic macro
  • 9. The instruction manual used to produce the As-Built drawings for stitch grout areas worked very well and proved to be more efficient than manually preparing the drawings directly with AutoCAD

The only recommendation from the findings previously stated, is to use the Instruction Manual created from information gathered from this internship. This instruction manual, entitled “Process Manual for Generating As-Built Drawings for Stitch and Production Grouting” aims to be extremely simple and reduce production time dramatically. In order to improve the efficiency of the production of these drawings, it was advised to follow this process since it provides insight on how to manipulate the massive database of grouting information.

Embankment Construction: Compaction of Zone 1 Materials

The Panama Canal Authority (ACP) is proposing to construct four embankment dams, Borinquen Dams 1E, 2E, 1W, and 2W, as part of the Pacific Access Channel (PAC) that will connect and allow navigation from the Gaillard Cut section of the Panama Canal to the new Pacific Post-Panamax Locks. The function of Dam 1E is to retain the Gatun Lake.

The main purposes of this project is to: (1) select the most adequate type of structure to be used for Borinquen Dam 1E, (2) develop compaction requirements and testing specifications for Zone 1 clay core based on the results of Zone 1 test fill number 7, and (3) evaluate the actual compaction achieved in the field, based on analysis of test results, against project specifications and against personally designed specifications.

Both earth embankment dams and concrete dams were taken into consideration for the construction of Borinquen Dam 1E. The main types of dams taken in consideration were: (1) zoned earthfill embankment dam, (2) central core earth and rockfill embankment dam, (3) roller compacted concrete dam (RCC), and (4) mass concrete gravity dam. The report addresses the main features of each dam along with their advantages and disadvantages.

The main design requirements specific to the construction of Borinquen Dam 1E that constrain the selection of alternative designs are: (1) foundation conditions, (2) availability of construction material, (3) static and seismic stability, (4) ship grounding, (5) seepage analysis considerations and (6) construction practicality in present environmental conditions.

The type of embankment dam used Borinquen Dam 1E is a central core earth and rockfill dam. The total embankment volume is estimated to be 4,920,000 m3 , of which the earthfill clay core would be 460,000 m3 . To prevent piping of the clayey residual soil core materials and to transfer seepage away from the dam embankment, an arrangement of filters and drains has been included in the design. The report outlines the description of the embankment zones, their functionalities, the materials available for construction at the site area and the quantities and types of materials needed to build the embankment zones.

Specific project constraints regarding Zone 1 material and its placement and compaction were discussed. The types of materials found, during burrow area investigations, for construction of the core were only residual soils formed through the weathering of the underlying bedrock. Not all of the excavated material will be suitable to be used in the embankment. Material will be lost during clearing and stripping operations. Oversized material might be encountered. Due to the to the high precipitation conditions some materials might have high water content values. Hence it will take time to process the materials to achieve adequate moisture content values. It will be challenging and it is critical to place materials in Zone 1 at adequate moisture contents. When compacting cohesive soils, their shear strength increases, compressibility and permeability decrease, but if compacting too wet of optimum these soil characteristics will not be achieved.

The central vertical earth core, Zone 1, is designed to be (1) impermeable to prevent seepage through the dam, (2) have sufficient strength to resist static, seismic and construction loads, (3) be sufficiently ductile and flexible to have the ability to accommodate for fault displacements, and (4) have an adequately low compressibility to avoid potential damages due to future settlement. The report goes in to detail regarding what engineering soil properties need to be specified for a soil to be impermeable, strong, ductile and flexible and have low compressibility. The research found that what needs to be specified is: (1) the source and Soil Classification, (2) the maximum particle size and particle size distribution, (3) the Atterberg limits, (4) The shear strength, (5) the water content placement range and (6) the density ratio. The zone 1 key specification requirements are: (1) Material to be residual soil and not contain any organic material, (2) PI > 10, (3) 100% passing 6” (150mm) sieve, ≥ 70% passing ¾” (19mm) sieve, and> 35% passing No.200 (0.075 mm) sieve, (4) minimum undrained shear strength = 75 kPa, (5) Compaction water content range between +2% and +12% of OMC. The report further describes the procedures for material burrow excavations, placement, compaction and the ASTM testing methods and frequencies.

To select the best possible type of dam structure for construction of Borinquen Dam 1E research on the proposed options was performed. Evaluation of each option against the design criteria, with discussion of advantages and disadvantages of each type, was performed. The best suitable option was chosen for construction of Borinquen Dam 1E.

New specifications for the compaction and testing requirements for Zone 1 earthfill were produced based on: research regarding the compaction of soils and testing methods, regarding the design of central core earth and rockfill embankment dams, regarding testing specifications and frequency criteria for clay cores, on knowledge of the constraints specific to the project site location, on the criteria requirements for Zone 1 and on analysis of results of Zone 1 test fill number 7. The objectives of Zone 1 test fill number 7 were to gain information on the engineering properties of the materials of the burrow areas.

The compaction procedures and laboratory tests were supervised to determine if specifications were being followed correctly. The laboratory test results were analyzed to determine whether the compaction of zone 1 was meeting specifications and the personally developed specifications. Recommendations based on the findings were produced.

Objective 1: After the comparison between the two embankment dams, it was decided that the central core and rockfill dam was the superior option. The central core earth and rockfill dam has more advantages compared to the zoned earthfill embankment and it is more compatible with the design criteria requirements. A similar comparison between the two concrete dams was done as well. The RCC dam was the deemed to be the better option because of its adherence to the design criteria requirements. After comparison with between the two remaining options the central core earth and rockfill embankment dam design was determined to be the ideal option. The decision was mainly based on the materials available at the site, the foundation’s strength and the seismic displacement consideration. This decision coincides with the type of structure that is being built at present.

Objective 2: The developed specifications for Zone 1 are: (1) Material to be residual soil (MH and CH preferred, GM and SC alternatives), (2) 100% passing 3” (75mm) sieve, ≥ 70% passing ¾” (19mm) sieve and > 25% passing No.200 (0.075 mm) sieve, (3) PI > 10, (4) Minimum undrained shear strength = 75 kPa, and (5) Compaction water content range between +2% and +8% of OMC. It was determined that the density ratio is best to not be specified since compaction is going to be done at moisture content values high above optimum. Specifications on testing frequencies were produced for quality control purposes; based on the research regarding common practices for testing frequencies and on the knowledge of the project’s circumstances. The vane shear strength test was specified to be done once per lift per 100m horizontally and once per lift per 200m horizontally, thereafter. The moisture content test every shear strength test location. The testing frequency for the particle size, Atterberg limits and the optimum moisture content was chosen to be done every 1500 m³. The sand cone test for dry density was specified to be done to test the validity of the vane shear test result, whenever the field inspector feels it’s needed and every 10,000 m³. All test were specified to be done following ASTM standards.

Objective 3: During the supervision of the Zone 1 compaction process it was found that occasionally the dozer was used for compaction instead of the tamping-foot compactor. The specifications recommend the latter, during evaluation of the test fills, since it was found to lead toward a better bonding between lifts. The supervision of the tests being done in the laboratory concluded that the ASTM procedures were being followed correctly except for the procedure for determining the bulk density of the sand for the sand cone test. “Alternative method B” and not the “preferred method A” in the ASTM standard D 1556 Annex was being used. The “Preferred method A” was then performed and the results were determined to be more accurate. Hence, “preferred method A” was used from then on. During field and laboratory supervisions of Zone 1 testing procedures, the vane shear test was acknowledged to be a more efficient quality control testing method compared to the sand cone test. Thus, testing for shear strength was determined to be a better choice for the primary quality control method. All of the analyzed test results adequately met the project’s specifications and the personally designed specifications. Except for the moisture content of the personally developed specifications, which was 0.8% above specification. Since all of the other test results complied with the specification, it was decided that the lift was adequately compacted and removal was not necessary. 88.9% compaction of Zone 1 was achieved. A percent compaction value was not specified. The value was recognized as a low value but still acceptable, since the percent compaction the test fill number 7 all were between 87 % & 98% and since most of the samples had achieved satisfactory shear strengths.

It was determined that the central core earth and rockfill embankment dam structure, which is being used to construct Borinquen dam 1E, is the best possible option for the projects circumstances. It was determined that the compaction requirements and testing specifications for quality control are accurate for the construction of Borinquen dam 1E. They are more suitable than the more restrictive personally developed specifications. It was determined that the compaction being achieved In Zone 1, meets the project’s specifications and is satisfactory for the outcome of the core’s functionalities.

It was recommended that the Zone 1 field compaction processes and the laboratory test procedures be carefully supervised. It was recommended that lab test results be precisely and critically evaluated before their approval. It was recommended to do the sand cone density test more often than what is currently being done, in order to test the validity of the vane shear strength result, to confirm that adequate compaction is being achieved and to know for certain that the outcome of the core’s functionalities will be attained.

Borinquen Dam 1E Construction Management Process Analysis

Construction management is a balance of time, quality, and cost. Thorough and early planning is the most effective technique in controlling the balance of cost and schedule of a project while ensuring a quality product. In order to develop an adequate plan, significant testing and surveys must be completed to optimize predictability. With adequate planning, variations may be reduced which can lead to significant cost savings.

Several aspects of construction were investigated that may impact the quality and efficiency of the operation including but not limited to the following: equipment, hauling roads, construction schedule, and wage rates. The key aspect relevant to the cost analysis was the cost of rental equipment.

Construction equipment is expensive equity for a contracting business and rentals can be a better option. Purchasing and owning equipment is expensive upfront and may incur expensive maintenance. The contractor needs to have a large company with regular work in order to afford the expense without losing capitol while the equipment is not being used. Additionally, because equipment is highly specialized for specific types of jobs in terms of size, weight, capacity, or specialty sensors or extensions the contractor may need a diverse fleet in order to ensure regular use of the equipment. Renting equipment gives the contractor more versatility with low up front cost. Renting equipment also give the contractor more flexibility to increase or decrease the fleet at various points in construction. A set rental rate also helps contractors prepare bids and make cost projections. The contractor also avoids storage and transportation costs and can rent the newest, most effective models.

The contractor at the Borinquen Dam is renting excavation, hauling, dozing, compaction, water, and several other pieces of equipment. The primary equipment used for each zone and at each stage of construction is summarized below with the associated rental rates.

The goal of this section of the project was to develop a process analysis of the construction of the Borinquen Dam 1E. This process analysis investigated key points in the operation including the excavation, processing, hauling, and construction of each zone of the Dam. From this analysis, potential points for improving production and cost efficiency were identified. In order to accomplish this goal, several objectives were developed including the following:

  • 1. Gain an understanding of the construction process and identify central crutches to productivity;
  • 2. Gain metrics on the current construction process at the identified crutches;
  • 3. Analyze the efficiency of the current process and develop recommendations for the contractor at several key points including:
    • a. Excavation,
    • b. Stock Piling,
    • c. Construction,
    • d. Hauling; and
  • 4. Project the time of completion and the associated cost at the current rate of construction and after recommendations.

In order to accomplish these objects, equipment, scheduling practices, and other construction management tools were researched. The researched information in addition to supportive information provided by ACP employees were used to develop a frame for the process analysis. Using that frame, field work and interviews could be effectively used to maximize resources and achieve the following objectives.

The following findings were identified through the course of this internship:

  • Finding 1: The contractor is placing less material on the embankment than scheduled
  • Finding 2: The contractor has not been placing Zone 1 and Zone 3 materials as scheduled over the past 5 months
  • Finding 3: The contractor is not producing enough material for the filter layers to place as scheduled
  • Finding 4: The stock piled zone 1 residual soil is being drawn from faster than excavation can restock it
  • Finding 5: The two main zones that will most likely slow construction are zone 1 and zone 3
  • Finding 6: Projected time of completion and most cost effective completion time

From these findings, recommendations for the optimization of the operation were developed. The recommendations are based around the observation of several key limitations for productivity including the Excavation of Zone 1 material, and placement of Zone 3 material on the embankment.

Zone 1:

  • Recommendation 1: Improve Length and Quality of Hauling Route
  • Recommendation 2: Increase Excavation Fronts
  • Recommendation 3: Utilize Bull Dozers to Assist the Excavators

Zone 3:

  • Recommendation 1: Widen placement planes at embankment to allow for increased maneuverability of hauling trucks and bull dozer.
  • Recommendation 2: Use multiple bull dozers to expedite spreading of material
  • Recommendation 3: Use Compactor to improve temporary construction road surface conditions
  • Recommendation 4: Optimize number of hauling trucks and route distance to construction sites
  • Recommendation 5: Increase Embankment construction sites to three fronts continuously: North, South, and Center

If the contractor continues to follow the current rate of production, construction may be completed May 4th, 2015, two months after the contractor’s scheduled completion March 2015. The January 15th 2015 completion date is the optimal projected completion date assuming the contractor follows all the Zone 3 recommendations. The third date is the suggested balance of the two with a February 15th completion date.

It was projected that at the current rate of construction as observed over the past month, the date of completion may be May 4th 2015, two months after the contractor’s submitted schedule. It was concluded that the superior combination of recommendations for best time and cost efficiency was for the contractor to increase the width of the placement planes to accommodate 2 dozers each at the two current fronts and increase the associated equipment fleet likewise for a February 15th completion date assuming a 6 day work week. This updated schedule is projected to cost the contractor $1,179,833.68 starting from December 1st 2014.