WPI, CSM, KU Leuven and University of Tokyo are unparalleled in that the organizations have a long tradition of materials processing and extractive metallurgy research. The equipment at the Metal Processing Institute and the laboratories at WPI are a resource for the center in the areas of metal sortation, scrap characterization, rare earth extraction, and Li-ion battery processing. The facilities and equipment at CSM’s Kroll Institute for Extractive Metallurgy uniquely position CR3 to conduct research in the area of resource recovery and recycling of materials. Similarly, the Departments of Materials Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Geology, and Chemistry at KU Leuven allow research in the areas of zero-waste critical and base metal recycling including valorisation of processing residues into building materials, and enhanced landfill mining and policy research. The Laboratory of Processing and Separation of Resources, Department of Systems Innovation at the University of Tokyo works to develop environmental-friendly and cost-effective technologies for extraction of resources and/or sorting, separation, recovery and refinement of secondary-raw materials for reuse and recycling, as well as carry out research in the area of environmental impact assessment and waste management.