Patents and Publications

Patents:

  1. Y. Wang, D. Apelian, “High Energy Density Flow Batteries”, U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/646,496 Filing Date: May 14, 2012.
  2. D. Apelian, S. Hudson, R. De Saro, J. Craparo, “Apparatus and Method for Measuring Inclusions in Molten Metal Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy”, patent applied for September 13, 2013.
  3. Y. Wang, D. Apelian, H. Zou, “Method and Apparatus for Recycling Lithium-Ion Batteries”, U.S. Patent Application Publication No. US 2013/0302226 A1 Filing Date: Nov. 14, 2013.
  4. A. Birt, G. Martin, F. Abedi, D. Apelian, “Kinetic Batteries”, U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 62/256,871, November 18, 2015.
  5. H. Emmert, H. M. Dhammika Bandara, “Separation of Recycled Rare Earths”, U.S. Patent Application No. 14/996,538, patent applied for January 15, 2016.

 

Publications:

2017

C. Dai and D. Apelian “Fabrication and Characterization of Aluminum Dross Containing Mortar Composites: Upcycling of a Waste Product”, Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, Vol. 3, No.2, June 2017, pp. 230-238

M. DeRousseau, B. Gully, C. Taylor, D. Apelian, Y. Wang, “Repurposing Used Electric Car Batteries: A Review of Options”, Journal of Materials, Vol. 69, No. 9, September 2017, pp. 1575-1582

S. Kelly and D. Apelian, “Grave-to-Gate: Automotive Aluminum Recycling at End-of-Life”,Light Metal Age, February 2017, pp. 40-43

S. Kelly and D. Apelian, “Value Creation Through Enabling Technologies to Up-Cycle Aluminum Scrap”, ESS:M&R3 SME Symposium Proceedings, Denver, CO, February 18-19, 2017.

H. Cui, C. G. Anderson, “Fundamental Studies on the Surface Chemistry of Ancylite, Calcite, and Strontianite”, Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 48-62.

J. Nduwa-Mushidi, C. G. Anderson, “Surface Chemistry and Flotation Behaviors of Monazite-Apatite-Ilmenite-Quartz-Rutile-Zircon with Octanohydroxamic Acid”, Journal of Sustrainable Metallurgy, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 62-73.

Y. Yang, A. Walton, R. Sheridan, K. Güth, R. Gau, O. Gutfleisch, M. Buchert, B. –M. Steenari, T. Van Gerven, P. T. Jones, K. Binnemans, “REE Recovery from End-of-Live NbFeB Permanent Magnet Scrap: A Critical Review”, Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 122-150.

2016

R. De Saro, S. Kelly, D. Apelian, “High Integrity Casting of Lightweight Components”: (2.4: Recovery, Reuse, and Recycling of Aluminum), published by NADCA, Wheeling, IL 2016

Cui H, Anderson CG (2016) Literature Review of Hydrometallurgical Recycling of Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs). J Adv Chem Eng 6: 142. Doi: 10.4172/2090-4568.1000142

C. Dai and D. Apelian “Fabrication and Characterization of Aluminum Dross Containing Mortar Composites: Upcycling of a Waste Product”, Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, available Online First on July 16, 2016 at http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40831-016-0071-7

M. DeRousseau, B. Gully, C. Taylor, D. Apelian, Y. Wang, “Second-Use Applications for Batteries from Electric Vehicles” to be submitted.

S. Kelly, D. Apelian, “Scrap Characterization to Optimize the Recycling Process, Proceedings of REWAS Conference, TMS, pp. 227-230, Nashville, TN, February 2016.

M. DeRousseau, B, Gully, C. Taylor, D. Apelian, Y. Wang, “Options for Repurposing Used Electric Car Batteries”, submitted to Environmental Science & Technology.

J. Heelan, E. Gratz, Z. Zheng, Q. Wang, M. Chen, D. Apelian, Y. Wang, “Current and Prospective Li-ion Battery Recycling and Recovery Processes”, Journal of Metals, Vol. 65, No. 10, pp. 2632-2638.

D. Apelian, S. Kelly, “Sustainable Metal Production of Aluminum: Goodbye Smelting Plants; Hello Mini Mills”, proceedings of Materials Science & Technology 2016 (MS&T), The 8th International Symposium on Green and Sustainable Technologies for Materials Manufacturing and Processing, Salt Lake City, UT October 2016.

M. Jung, B. Mishra,”Kinetic and Thermodynamic Study of Aluminum Recovery from the Aluminum Smelter Baghouse Dust”, Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, 2(3), 257-264, 2016

Q. Sa, E.Gratz, J. Heelan, J. Ma, D. Apelian, Y. Wang, “Synthesis of Diverse LiNi x Mn y Co z O2 Cathode Materials from Lithium Ion Battery Recovery Stream”, Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, 2(3), pp. 248-256.

Y. Pontikes, “Bauxite Residue Valorization and Best Practices: Preface for the Thematic Section and Some of the Works to Follow”, Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 313-316.

C. R. Borra, B. Blanpain, Y. Pontikes, K. Binnemans, T. Van Gerven, “Recovery of Rare Earths and Other Valuable Metals From Bauxite Residue (Red Mud): A Review”, Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, Vol 2. No. 4, pp. 365-387.

T. Hertel, B. Blanpain, Y. Pontikes, “A Proposal for a 100 % use of Bauxite Residue Towards Inorganic Polymer Mortar”, Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 394-405.

2015

Q. Sa, E. Gratz, J. Heelan, J. Ma, D. Apelian, Y. Wang, “Synthesis of Diverse LiNixMnyCozO2 Cathode Materials from Lithium Ion Battery Recovery Stream”, Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, Volume 2, Number 3, September, 2016, pp. 248-256.

Q. Sa, Y. Lu, D. Apelian, Y. Wang, “Copper Impurity Effects on LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 Cathode Material”, accepted for publication by ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces.

Q. Sa, E. Gratz, D. Apelian, Y. Wang, “Synthesis of High Performance LiNi1/3 Mn1/3 Co1/3 O2 from Lithium Ion Battery Recovery Stream”, Journal of Power Sources, 182 (2015) 140-145.

J. Heelan, E. Gratz, Q. Sa, D. Apelian, Y. Wang, “Recovery of Lithium Carbonate from a Recycled Lithium-Ion Battery Source” submitted to Journal of Power Sources.

D. Apelian, “The Way Ahead is a Circular Economy”, submitted to Constellium – Live 7 Magazine.

D. Apelian, “Copper Never Becomes Waste”, International Copper Association video, in production

T. Suetens, M. Guo, K. Van Acker, B. Blanpain (2015), “Zn loss into ZnFe2O4 in an open type electric arc furnace: An in-process separation performance model”, Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, art.nr. DOI 10.1007/s40831-015-0033-5.

T. Suetens, K. Van Acker, B. Blanpain, B. Mishra, D. Apelian (2015), “In-process separation of furnace dust: The authors’ response”, JOM: The Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, 67(7), pp. 1402-1402.

T. Suetens, M. Guo, K. Van Acker, B. Blanpain (2015), “Gas-solid reaction kinetics of ZnFe2O4 formation from 907 to 1100 °C”, Journal of Physical Chemistry, art.nr. 10.1021.

T. Suetens, M. Guo, K. Van Acker, B. Blanpain (2015), “Formation of the ZnFe2O4 phase in an electric arc furnace off-gas treatment system”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 287, pp. 180-187.

T. Suetens, B. Blanpain, (sup.), K. Van Acker (cosup.) (2015), “Recovery of Zinc and Iron from Electric Arc Furnace Dusts: The Feasibility of In-Process Separation”, 134 pp, doctoral thesis KU Leuven

B. Mishra, “Investigation of Commercial Products Conversion from Bauxite Residue”, submitted to Int. Conf. of Low-Grade Ores & Urban Mining, Natl. Met. Lab. Jamshedpur, India, Jan 2015.

B. Mishra, “Global Sustainability of Critical Materials”, submitted to Int. Conf. of Low-Grade Ores & Urban Mining, Natl. Met. Lab. Jamshedpur, India, Jan 2015.

O. S. Baigenzhenov, V. A. Kozlov, V. A. Luganov, B. Mishra and R. A. Shayametova, “Complex Processing of Wastes generated in Chrysotile Asbestos Production”, J. Min. Proc. & Ext. Metallurgy, Vol. 36(4), pp. [2015].

D. Marinos and B. Mishra, “An Approach to Processing of Lithium-Ion Batteries for the Zero-Waste Recovery of Materials”, DOI 10.1007/s40831-015-0024-6, J. Sustain. Metall., Vol. 1(4), pp. [2015].

G. Z. Moldabayeva, S. K. Akilbekova, K. K. Mamyrbayeva and B. Mishra, “Electrosmelting of Lead-containing Dusts from Copper Smelters”, accepted for publication, J. Sustain. Metall., Vol. 1(4), pp. [2015].

K. Vasseur, T. Hennebel, D. Apelian, C. Meskers, M. Esprit, M. Van Camp, “Towards a Resource Resilient Society via the Triple Helix Concept” Triple Helix Concept Poster, The 5th Trilateral EU-US-Japan Conference on Critical Materials: New Trend of Efficient Management of Critical Materials, October 26, 2015, Tokyo, Japan

2014

D. Apelian, H. Yu, B. Mishra, B. Blanpain, “Integrated Minimill to Produce Aluminum from Scrap”, published in JOM, Vol. 66, No. 3, March 2014, pp. 357- 358.

T. Seutens, K. Van Acker, B. Blanpain, B. Mishra, D. Apelian, “Moving Towards Better Recycling Options for Electric Arc Furnace Dust”, JOM, July 2014, pp. 1119-1121.

B. Mishra, D. Apelian, “Corrosion of Advanced Steels: Challenges in the Oil & Gas Industry”, Proceedings of Energy Materials 2014, November 4-6, 2014 Xi’an, China.

D. Apelian, B. Mishra, “Energy Efficient Materials Manufacturing from Secondary Resources”, Proceedings of Energy Materials 2014, November 4-6, 2014 Xi’an, China.

Y. Wang, E. Gratz, S. Qina, D. Apelian, “A Closed Loop Process for Recycling Spent Lithium Ion Batteries”, published by Science Direct at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378775314004571# and by Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 262, September 2014, pgs. 255-262.

Q. Sa, E. Gratz, M. He, W. Lu, D. Apelian, Y. Wang, “Synthesis of High Performance LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 from Lithium Ion Battery Recovery Stream”, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 282, May, 2015, pp. 140-145.

B. Dugan, C. Anderson, “Recycling of Bag-House Dust from Foundry Sand”, Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management, Volume 40, August, 2014, pp. 203-214.

T. Suetens, K. Van Acker, B. Blanpain, B. Mishra, D. Apelian (2014), “Moving towards better recycling options for electric arc furnace dust”, JOM: the Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, 66(7), pp. 1119-1121.

T. Suetens, B. Klaasen, K. Van Acker, B. Blanpain (2014), “Comparison of electric arc furnace dust treatment technologies using energy efficiency”, Journal of Cleaner Production, 65, pp. 152-167.

B. Mishra, “Investigation of Iron Recovery from Bauxite Residue”, Journal of No. 8(112), pp. 23-29, [2014].

B. Mishra & A. Anderson, “Extraction & Recovery of Rare-Earth Metals: Challenges in Processing”, Proc. ERES 2014, Milos, Greece, published by the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme, pp. 19-26, 2014.

N. Nayak, D. Apelian, “Opportunities and Barriers to Resource Recovery and Recycling from Shredder Residue in the United States”, published on line by JOM March 20, 2014, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11837-014-0902-6?sa_campaign=email/event/articleAuthor/onlineFirst, and JOM, Vol. 66, No. 11, 2014, pp. 2367-2376.

2013

H. M. D. Bandara, J. W. Darcy, D. Apelian, M. Emmert, “Value Analysis of Neodymium Content in Shredder Feed: Towards Enabling the Feasibility of Rare Earth Magnet Recycling”, Environmental Science and Technology, 2014, Vol. 48, pp. 6553–6560.

K. Hammond, B. Mishra, D. Apelian and B. Blanpain, “CR3 Communication: Red Mud – A Resource or a Waste?” JOM, Vol. 65, No.3, March 2013 pp. 340-341.

J. Darcy, H. M. D. Bandara, B. Mishra, B. Blanplain, D. Apelian, M. Emmert “Challenges in Recycling End-of-Life Rare Earth Magnets”, JOM, 65 (11), 2013, pp. 1381-1382.

H. Zou, E. Gratz, D. Apelian, Y. Wang, “A Novel Method to Recycle Mixed Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries”, http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2013/GC/C3GC40182K, Advance Article citation, DOI: 10.1039/C3GC40182K, Green Chemistry.

P. Gasper, J. Hines, J. Miralda, R. Bonhomme, J. Schaufeld, D. Apelian, Y. Wang, “Economic Feasibility of a Mechanical Separation Process for Recycling Alkaline Batteries”, Journal of New Materials for Electrochemical Systems, 16 (2013), pp. 297-304.

E. Gratz, Q. Sa, D. Apelian and Y. Wang, “A Closed Loop Process for Recycling Spent Lithium Ion Batteries”, Journal of Power Sources, 2014. 262(0): p. 255-262.

S. Onisei, Y. Pontikes, D. Apelian, B. Blanpain, “Synthesis of Inorganic Polymers from Metallurgical Residues”, Proceedings of 3rd International Slag Valorisation Symposium, Leuven, Belgium, March 2013.

H. M. D. Bandara, M. A. Mantell, J. W. Darcy, M. H. Emmert, “Closing the Lifecycle on Rare Earth Magnets: Discovery of Neodymium in Slag from Steel Mills”, Energy Techn, 2015, 3, 118-120.

H. M. D. Bandara, K. D. Field, M. H. Emmert, “Rare Earth Recovery from End-of-Life Motors employing Green Chemistry Design Principles”, Green Chem, 2016, 18, 753-759.

R. P. Narayanan, L. –C. Ma, N. K. Kazantzis, M. H. Emmert, “Scandium Recovery from Bauxite Residue (Red Mud): Cost Analysis as a Tool for Process Development”, 2016, submitted.

2012

B. Mishra, C. D. Anderson, P. R. Taylor, C. G. Anderson, D. Apelian and B. Blanpain, “Recycling of Strategic Metals”, JOM, Vol. 64, No. 4, April 2012, PP. 441-443.

P.T. Jones, D. Geysen, Y. Tielemans, Y. Pontikes, B. Blanpain, B. Mishra , D. Apelian, “Closing Material Loops: the Enhanced Landfill Mining Concept”, JOM, Volume 64, No. 7, July, 2012, 743-744.

N. Nayak, D. Apelian, B. Mishra, and B. Blanpain “Opportunities and Barriers to Resource Recovery and Recycling from Shredder Residue—A CR3 Communication”, JOM, Vol. 64, No.12, December 2012 pp. 1373-1374.

T. Suetens, B. Klaasen, K. Van Acker, B. Blanpain. (2012). “Exergy based comparison of the Waelz Kiln process and RHF for the treatment of EAF dust: Vol. 1. Sanmet IV; International Conference on Process Development in Iron and Steelmaking. Luleå, Sweden, June 10-13 , 2012 (pp. 521-530) Swerea MEFOS.

K. Hammond, B. Mishra, D. Apelian and B. Blanpain, “CR3 Communication: Red Mud: A Resource or Waste?”, JOM, Vol 65(3), pp. 34-342, (2013).

K. Binnemans, P.T. Jones, K. Van Acker, B. Blanpain, B. Mishra and D. Apelian, “Rare-Earth Economics: The Balance Problem”, JOM, Vol 65(7), 846-848, (2013).

J.W. Darcy, H.M.D. Bandara, B. Mishra, B. Blanpain, D. Apelian and M.H. Emmert, “Challenges in Recycling End-of-Life Rare Earth Magnets”, JOM, Vol 65(11), pp. 1381-1383, (2013).

2011

D. Anderson, D. Apelian, K. Bennaceur, B. Mishra, B. Moudgil, C. Russell, D. Shields, R. Wright, “Engineering Solutions for Sustainability: A Blueprint for Addressing Materials and Resources Issues”, Proceedings of World Engineers’ Convention, Geneva, September 4-9, 2011.

T. Anand, B. Mishra, D. Apelian and B. Blanpain, “The Case for Recycling of Rare Earth Metals – a CR3 Communication”, JOM, V. 62, No. 6, June 2011, pp.4-5.

Y. Wang, D. Apelian, B. Mishra and B. Blanpain, “Lithium Ion Battery Recycling – a CR3 Communication” JOM, V. 63, No. 9, September 2011, p. 10

P.T. Jones, T. Van Gerven, K. Van Acker, D. Geysen, K. Binnemans, J. Fransaer, B. Blanpain, B. Mishra, D. Apelian, “CR3: Cornerstone to the Sustainable Inorganic Materials Management (SIM2) Research Program at K.U. Leuven”, JOM, V. 63, No. 12, December 2011, p. 12-13.