Annotated Bibliography

[1] Abbott, John. The use of GIS in Informal Settlement Upgrading: Its Role and Impact on the Community and on Local Government. Habitat International 27.4 (2003): 575-93. Web.

Useful Source. The author discusses the importance of spatial mapping and the use of a GIS system in the process of upgrading informal settlements in Cape Town. He concluded that since a GIS system covered all physical data pertaining to a site, a comprehensive, integrated, settlement upgrading methodology can be created.

[2] Abbot, John. Use of Spatial Data to Support the Integration of Informal Settlements into the Formal City. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 3.3 (2001): 267-77. Web.

Useful Source. The author discusses the difference between spatial mapping and planning of formal settlements and informal settlements. It discusses the different ways to use spatial mapping with informal settlements and gives examples of what techniques work and don’t work. It also includes a couple case studies, one located in the Cape Town area.

[3] Antunes, Paula, Rui Santos, and Luís Jordão. The Application of Geographical Information Systems to Determine Environmental Impact Significance. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 21.6 (2001)

Somewhat Useful Source. Discusses a new methodology called SIAM (spatial impact assessment methodology) that covers the importance of the impact of spatial mapping on the environment.  Also includes a case study of evaluation of adding a highway in Portugal.

[4] Arbon, K. An Ecovillage Existence. Retrieved September 7, 2009 (2007)

Very Useful Source. The author explains the process and advantages of creating an Eco-Village by portraying a physical map of what an Eco-village should look like. He concluded that different designs are better for different types of environments, which will be useful when planning a community in a desert with little natural resources.

[5] Christopher, A. J. “Apartheid Planning in South Africa: The Case of Port Elizabeth.” The Geographical Journal 153.2 (1987): 195-204. Web.

Useful Source. Examines how the end of apartheid caused many people to move into informal settlements and how urban planners will have to deal with the massive influx of people that have settled in a non-structured way.

[6] Glass, K. R., C. Morkel, and S. D. Bangay. “Duplicating Road Patterns in South African Informal Settlements Using Procedural Techniques.” (2006). ACM International Conference on Computer Graphics, V, v 2006, p 161-169, 2006, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Computer Graphics, Virtual Reality, Visualization and Interaction in Africa, Afrigaph ’06, Virtual Reality and VisualiZation in Africa

Very Useful Source. This article directly addresses the issue of roads in informal settlements by analyzing the existing road structure in the informal settlements of Cape Town and Johannesburg, South Africa.  Additionally, the article provides possibilities for creating better roads that are still suitable to the setup of informal settlements.

[7] Garstka, Grant Jude. “Post-Conflict Urban Planning: The Regularization Process of an Informal Neighborhood in Kosova/o.” Habitat International In Press, Corrected Proof Web.

Somewhat Useful Source. A case study of Kosova where a conflict caused thousands of people to move into informal settlements, and then later planners had to go and try to restructure the area in a productive, and regularized way.

[8] Harrison, Phillip, and Alison Todes. “The use of Spatial Frameworks in Regional Development in South Africa.” Regional Studies 35.1 (2001): 65. Web. September 06, 2009.

Useful Source. Discusses the topic of “spatial frameworks” as a guide to redeveloping informal settlements in South Africa.  Article covers problems in redevelopment, tensions between the people and the government, and the importance of spatial planning.

[9] Hasan, A. (2006). Orangi Pilot Project: The Expansion of Work Beyond Orangi and the Mapping of Informal Settlements and Infrastructure. Environment and Urbanization (Sage), 18(2), 451.

Useful Source. This article focuses on the informal settlement of Orangi in Karachi, Pakistan.  The Orangi Pilot Project-Research and Training Institute and their efforts to map the under-documented infrastructure of Orangi, as well as general efforts to improve sanitation and housing, help illustrate the importance of mapping in urban projects and the integral part that mapping and infrastructure play in the development of informal settlements.

[10] Luiz, John M. “The Relevance, Practicality and Viability of Spatial Development Initiatives: A South African Case Study.” Public Administration and Development 23.5 (2003): 433-43. Web.

Somewhat Useful Source. A case study that talks about political and social issues with redevelopment in South Africa, namely the Fish River area.  Tries to point out issues so that a solution promoting economic growth and sustainability can be found.

[11] Nchito, W. S., & Nchito, W. (2007). Flood Risk in Unplanned Settlements in Lusaka. Environment and Urbanization (Sage), 19(2), 539.

Somewhat Useful Source. This article explores one of the prominent dangers that informal settlements face-mother nature.  By highlighting the potential disaster by flood that the informal settlements in Lusaka face, it helps emphasize the important role that solid infrastructure can play in a community, as well as the massive loss of life and sanitation fiascos that can occur in these settlements where finding a place to live trumps a safe and effective community layout.

[12]Rogerson, Christian M., and C. M. Rogerson. “Spatial Development Initiatives in Southern Africa: The Maputo Development Corridor.” Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie 92.3 (2001): 324-46. Web

Useful Source. It discusses the importance of spatial planning in South Africa in the post-apartheid era and offers a case study of the Maputo Development Corridor.

[13] Swilling, M., & Annecke, E. (2006). Building Sustainable Neighbourhoods in South Africa: Learning from the Lynedoch Case. [Electronic version]. Environment and Urbanization, 18(2), 315-332.

Very Useful Source. This article thoroughly explained the planning process of an Eco-Village also located in the Cape Town area, the Lynedoch Eco-Village. The author describes how an Eco-Village needs a balance of growth, sustainability and equity in order to succeed. The plan was focused around children, which is similar to the proposition for Monwabisi Park. Also, the author explained how the community reduced the need for external services.

[14] Swilling, M., Swilling, M., & Swilling, M. (2006). Sustainability and Infrastructure Planning in South Africa: A Cape Town Case sSudy. Environment and Urbanization (Sage), 18(1), 23.

Useful Source. This article addresses the city of Cape Town’s inability to reconcile development of infrastructure in informal areas with ecological concerns.  It stresses that although improved infrastructure and economic growth are essential to progress, it is sincerely in the best interest of those involved to keep in mind ecological issues such as resource dependence and how it should effect further planning.

[15] Transportation Infrastructure and Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa.(2000). Public Works Management Policy, 4, 286 – 296.

Somewhat Useful Source. This article identifies a connection between economic and transportation infrastructure development.  It implies that places of economic growth or success are generally in areas accessible by better quality roads.  This leads to the conclusion that quality transportation infrastructure (roads, sidewalks, etc.) plays a role in a community’s economic development and should be taken more seriously.

[16] Undergraduate Students of WPI. Envisioning Endlovini: Options for Redevelopment in Monwabisi Park. Cape Town, South Africa (2008) Print.

Very Useful Source. This source directly identifies issues with the spatial layout of Monwabisi Park. The authors include why spatial redevelopment is vital to the sustainability of this community and they propose some options to be used in the future. They also include the reasons behind the inefficient layout of the park.

[17] Use of Spatial Data to Support the Integration of Informal Settlements into the Formal City. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 3.3 (2001): 267-77. Web.

Very Useful Source. Article discusses how the loose and chaotic framework of informal settlements pose a challenge to sustainable design, and offers solutions to create an eco-friendly model through case studies.

[18] WaterAid. Community Mapping: A tool for community organising (2005). Print.

Somewhat Useful Source. This journal explains the use of community mapping as a participatory development tool. It includes the issues within community mapping and an approach used to improve social change.

[19] “The Shaster Foundation for Community Development.” 2008. Web. Sept. 2009. <>.

Useful Source.  Since we will be collaborating greatly with the Shaster Foundation and working with what they have already accomplished, this website is very helpful. It includes their past efforts in Monwabisi Park, specifically the Indlovu Center, and their future efforts as well. It also includes important contacts and sets goals that can be helpful for projects concerning mapping and planning.

[20] Fu, Baihua, Lachlan T. H. Newham, and C. E. Ramos-Scharrón. “A Review of Surface Erosion and Sediment Delivery Models for Unsealed Roads.” Environmental Modelling & Software 25.1 (2010): 1-14. Web.

Useful Source. This paper summarizes well-developed and poorly developed road designs. It demonstrates the procedure for researching and developing models specializing in roads. It also includes how to design a road with long term durability.

Additional Resources

Abbott, J. (2001a). A method-based planning framework for informal settlement upgrading. Cape Town: Elsevier Science Ltd.

Abbott, J. (2003). The Use of GIS in Informal Settlement Upgrading: Its Role and Impact on the Community and on Local Government. Habitat International. Cape Town, South Africa: Elsevier Science Ltd.

Abbott, J. (2001b). Use of Spatial Data to Support the Integration of Informal Settlements into the Formal City. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation , 267-77.

Christopher, A. J. (1987). Apartheid Planning in South Africa: The Case of Port Elizabeth. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Correa, C. (1989). The New Landscape Urbanization in the Third World. Butterworth Architecture.

ESRI. (2009). The Guide to Geographic Information Systems. Retrieved 2009 йил 26-September from

Farrington, D. P., & Welsh, B. C. (2002). Effects of improved street lighting on crime: a systematic review. London, UK: Home Office Research, Development and Statistics Directorate.

Fotios, S., & Cheal, C. (2007). Lighting for subsidiary streets: investigation of lamps of different SPD. Part 1 Visual Performance. Sheffield, UK: The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers.

Franck, D., Mayo, W., Tomasko, M., & Xie, Y. (2008). Mapping as a Foundation for Spatial Redevelopment in Monwabisi Park. Worcester, MA: WPI.

Glass, K. R., Morkel, C., & Bangay, S. D. (2006). Duplicating Road Patterns in South African Informal Settlements Using Procedural Techniques.Cape Town: Afrigraph.

Haferburg, C. (2002). The Informal Settlement of Phola Park in the Context of Cape Town’s Plans for Socio-Spatial Integration. Hamburg, Germany: Springer Netherlands.

Hutzel, A. (n.d.). Three Ways to be 3-D – Understanding Topographic Maps. Retrieved 2009 йил 4-October from San Francisco Save the Bay:

Jacobson, M. (2007 йил May). Dharavi. Retrieved 2009 йил 3-October from Dharavi – National Geographic Magazine:

LonMark International. (n.d.). U.K. Streetlighting System Saves Energy, Improves Safety with Lonworks Technology. San Jose, California, USA.

Lynch, K. (1960). The City Image and Its Elements. In K. Lynch, The Image of the City (pp. 98-102). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Metzger, E. P. (n.d.). Building A Topographic Model. Retrieved 2009 йил 1-October from UCMP-Berkeley:

Oelofse, C., & Dodson, B. (1997). Community, Place and Transformation: a Perceptual Analysis of Residents’ Responses to an Informal Settlement in Hout Bay, South Africa. Cape Town: Elsevier Science Ltd.

Podymow, T., Turnbull, J., Islam, M. A., & Ahmed, M. Health and Social Conditions in the Dhaka Slums. The International Society for Urban Health.

Sharp, J., Broadbridge, H., & Badstuebner, J. (1999). Land Invasion and Informal Settlement; A Case Study of Monwabisi Park Khayelitsha.

Traffic Signs. (2005). Regulatory Signs. Retrieved October 10, 2009, from Traffic Signs:

UNDP. (2008). Human Development Indices. UNDP.

VPUU. (2006). Urban Renewal Spatial Development Framework for Khayelitsha and Mitchells Plain. Cape Town.

WHO. (n.d.). People Living in Informal Settlements. Retrieved 2009 йил 8-October from World Health Organization:

Wong, T., Breen, P., & Lloyd, S. (2000). Water Sensitive Road Design – Design Options for Improving Stormwater Quality of Road Runoff.Cooperative Research Centre for Catchment Hydrology.