Reference List

Reference List

The full library of sources collected over the course of our project work in Cape Town and our Preparation Term in Worcester is fully cited and organized below according to subject matter.

Global & Local Context

Legislature & Governance

Sustainable Principles

Previous WPI Involvement

Case Studies

Commercial Sanitation Options

Effluent Treatment & Reuse

  • A Directory of Environmentally Sound Technologies for the Integrated Management of Solid, Liquid, and Hasardous Waste for Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in the Pacific. (2002). United Nation Environment Programme.
  • Germer, J. [University of Hohenheim], Addai, S. & Sarpong, D. [Berger Biotechnik, Valley View University]. (2009). Fertilization with Human Urine…in a nutshell.  [Electronic Version]. Received 12 November 2009.
  • Mara, D. D., & Feachem, R. G. A. (1999). Water- and Excreta-Related Diseases: Unitary Environmental Classification. [Electronic Version].   Journal of Environmental Engineering. 125(4), 334-339. Retrieved 20 September 2009, from:
  • Minnis, P. Sources of Nutrients in Wastewater. [Electronic Version]. Pace University. Retrieved 2 December 2009.
  • Parkinson, J. & Tayler, K. (2003). Decentralized Wastewater Management in Peri-Urban Areas in Low-Income Countries. [Electronic Version]. Environment and Urbanization, 15(1), 75-89.
  • Vlotman, W. F., Wong, T., & Schultz, B. (2007). Integration of drainage, water quality and flood management in rural, urban and lowland areas. [Electronic Version]. Irrigation and Drainage, 56(S1), S161-S177.


  • Aggarwal, G. (2008/2009). Conversion of Sludge into Compost: State of the Art Engineering Report. [Electronic Version]. Integrated Engineering Design Course, University of Ontario. Retrieved 13 November 2009.
  • Crohn, D., Humpert, C., & Paswater, P. (2000). Composting Reduces Growers’ Concerns about Pathogens. [Electronic Version]. The Integrated Waste Management Board Publication Contract IWM-C8034. Retrieved 25 November 2009.
  • Municipal Technology Branch. (1999). Water Efficiency Technology Fact Sheet: Composting Toilets. [Electronic Version]. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water.
  • Obeng, L. & Wright, F. (1987). Integrated Resource Recovery: The Co-composting of Domestic Solid and Human Wastes. [Electronic Version]. World Bank Technical Paper Number 57, Library of Congress in-Publication Data. Retrieved 15 November 2009, from:
  • Wiley, B. & Westerberg, S. (1969). Survival of Human Pathogens in Composting Sewage. [Electronic Version]. Applied Microbiology, (18)6, 994-1001. Retrieved 24 November 2009.

Anaerobic Baffled Reactors (ABRs)

  • Barber, W. & Stuckey, D. (1999). The Use of the Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) for Wastewater Treatment: A Review. [Electronic Version]. Wat. Res. 7(33), 1559-1578.
  • Foxon, K., Buckley, C., Brouckaert, C., Dama, P., Mtembu, Z., Rodda, N., Smith, M., Pillay, S., Arjun, N., Lalbahadur, T., & Bux, F. (2006). The Evaluation of the Anaerobic Baffled Reactor for Sanitation in Dense Peri-Urban Settlements. [Electronic Version]. Water Research Commission Report No. 1248/01/06.
  • Foxon, K., Pillay, S., Lalbahadur, T., Rodda, N., Holder, F., & Buckley, C. The Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR): An Appropriate Technology for On-Site Sanitation. [Electronic Version]. Water S.A., 30(4), 44-50. Retrieved 20 November 2009.
  • Lalbahadur, T. (2005). Characterisation of the Microbial Communities Present in an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor Utilising Molecular Techniques. [Electronic Version]. Master’s Degree in Technology: Biotechnology Thesis, Durban Institute of Technology.
  • Nasr, F., Doma, H., & Nassar, H. (2008). Treatment of Domestic Wastewater Using an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor followed by a Duckweed Pond for Agricultural Purposes. [Electronic Version]. Environmentalist, 29(2009), 270-279. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
  • Pillay, S., Foxon, K. & Buckley, C. (2007). An Anaerobic Baffled Reactor /Membrane Bioreactor (ABR/MBR) for On-Site Sanitation in Low Income Areas. [Electronic Version]. Desalination, 231 (2008), 91-98. Retrieved 12 November 2009, from:

Grey Water

  • Armitage, N.P., Winter, K., Spiegel, A. & Kruger, E. (2009). Community-focused greywater management in two informal settlements in South Africa. [Electronic Version]. Water Sci Technol (PubMed), 59(12), 2341-2350.
  • Carden, K., Armitage, N., Winter, K., Sichone, O., Rivett, U., & Kahonde, J. (2007). The Use and Disposal of Greywater in the Non-Sewered Areas of South Africa: Part 1 – Quantifying the Greywater Generated and Assessing its Quality. [Electronic Version]. Water SA, 33(4), 425-432.
  • Carden, K., Armitage, N., Sichone, O., & Winter, K. (2007). The Use and Disposal of Greywater in the Non-Sewered Areas of South Africa: Part 2 – Greywater Management Options. [Electronic Version]. Water SA, 33(4), 433.
  • Winter, K., Armitage, N., Carden, K., & Spiegel, A. (2008). Why Things Fail: Greywater Management in Informal Settlements, South Africa. [Electronic Version]. Retrieved 4 Sept. 2009, from

Social & Educational Aspects

  • Onabolu, B. & Ndlovu, M. (2006). The WRC Community Based Health and Hygiene Model and Implementation Kit. [Electronic Version]. Water Research Commission Report No. TT 264/06.
  • Smith, M.A., Garbharran, H., Edwards, M.J., & O’Hara-Murdock, P. (2004). Health Promotion and Disease Prevention through Sanitation Education in South African Zulu and Xhosa Women. [Electronic Version].  J Transcult Nurs, 15, 62 – 68.

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