Ecological sanitation, also known as ecosan, is a way of dealing with human excrement and greywater that is both environmentally friendly and economically sustainable. Christine Werner talks extensively about ecological sanitation in her paper, “Ecosan – the closed loop solution to wastewater.” Ecological sanitation designs are “based on the systematic recycling of nutrients and water as a hygienically safe, closed loop and holistic alternative to conventional solutions” (Werner 2002). Most conventional sanitation options are expensive and rely on a large amount of water. Ecosan designs are more sanitary than most waterless waste disposal systems and allow the user to turn their waste into a valuable resource. Uno Winblad explains in detail many options that are available for ecosan designs in his book, “Ecological sanitation.” The majority of ecosan designs use a urine divergent system that collects urine and faecal matter separately. This allows them to be treated separately and used in different ways. The nutrients created by human waste can be used as a fertilizer for agricultural needs when it is treated properly. Ecological sanitation may not be practical in some areas, but it is an option that is increasingly successful in developing nations, particularly in areas where access to water is limited (Winblad 2004, Werner 2002, Wirbelauer 2003).

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