Another sanitation option is composting toilets. They are composed of a seat centred over a hole in the ground; faeces can then be collected together or separately from the urine. In addition to human waste, food scraps, grass clippings, wood shavings, straw, twigs and other bulking agents can be added to the waste (Katukiza 2012, Winblad 2004). These scraps use bacterial digestion to break down the pathogens in the waste. The period of time it takes to break down the pathogens is between two to three years. After this time, the waste will be pathogen free, and can be safely used as a fertiliser (Carbonneau 2009). Properly maintained composting toilets can take a fair amount of work since an ideal carbon to nitrogen level ratio must be maintained to ensure that the pathogens will be destroyed (Katukiza 2012). Composting toilets may not be an acceptable option in areas with high water tables or where flooding may occur as they may cause pollution and contamination of drinking water.

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